Rayleigh wave tomography in the North Atlantic: high resolution images of the Iceland, Azores and Eifel mantle plumes.

Pilidou, S. and Priestley, K. F. and Debayle, E. and Gudmundsson, O. (2005) Rayleigh wave tomography in the North Atlantic: high resolution images of the Iceland, Azores and Eifel mantle plumes. Lithos, 79. pp. 453-474. DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2004.09.012

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Presented in this paper is a high resolution Sv-wave velocity and azimuthal anisotropy model for the upper mantle beneath the North Atlantic and surrounding region derived from the analysis of about 9000 fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh waveforms. Much of the dataset comes from global and national digital seismic networks, but to improve the path coverage a number of instruments at coastal sites in northwest Europe, Iceland and eastern Greenland was deployed by us and a number of collaborators. The dense path coverage, the wide azimuthal distribution and the substantial higher-mode content of the dataset, as well as the relatively short path-lengths in the dataset have enabled us to build an upper mantle model with a horizontal resolution of a few hundred kilometers extending to 400 km depth. Low upper mantle velocities exist beneath three major hotspots: Iceland, the Azores and Eifel. The best depth resolution in the model occurs in NW Europe and in this area low Sv-velocities in the vicinity of the Eifel hotspot extend to about 400 km depth. Major negative velocity anomalies exist in the North Atlantic upper mantle beneath both Iceland and the Azores hotspots. Both anomalies are, above 200 km depth, 4–7% slow with respect to PREM and elongated along the mid-Atlantic Ridge. Low velocities extend to the south of Iceland beneath the Reykjanes Ridge where other geophysical and geochemical observations indicate the presence of hot plume material. The low velocities also extend beneath the Kolbeinsey Ridge north of Iceland, where there is also supporting geochemical evidence for the presence of hot plume material. The low-velocity upper mantle beneath the Kolbeinsey Ridge may also be associated with a plume beneath Jan Mayen. The anomaly associated with the Azores extends from about 258N to 458N along the ridge axis, which is in agreement with the area influenced by the Azores Plume, predicted from geophysical and geochemical observations. Compared to the anomaly associated with Iceland, the Azores anomaly is elongated further along the ridge, is shallower and decays more rapidly with depth. The fast propagation direction of horizontally propagating Sv-waves in the Atlantic south of Iceland correlates well with the east–west ridge-spreading direction at all depths and changes to a direction close to NS in the vicinity of Iceland.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 2005 AREP IA46 2005 P IA49
Subjects: 02 - Geodynamics, Geophysics and Tectonics
Divisions: 02 - Geodynamics, Geophysics and Tectonics
Journal or Publication Title: Lithos
Volume: 79
Page Range: pp. 453-474
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2004.09.012
Depositing User: Sarah Humbert
Date Deposited: 23 Aug 2010 13:04
Last Modified: 23 Jul 2013 09:59
URI: http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/id/eprint/1778

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