Anelasticity maps for acoustic dissipation associated with phase transitions in minerals

Carpenter, Michael A. and Zhang, Zhiying (2011) Anelasticity maps for acoustic dissipation associated with phase transitions in minerals. Geophysical Journal International, 186 (1). pp. 279-295. DOI 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05028.x

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Abstract

Acoustic dissipation due to structural phase transitions in minerals could give rise to large seismic attenuation effects superimposed on the high temperature background contribution from dislocations and grain boundaries in the Earth. In addition to the possibility of a sharp peak actually at a transition point for both compressional and shear waves, significant attenuation might arise over wider temperature intervals due to the mobility of transformation twins or other defects associated with the transition. Attenuation due to structural phase transitions in quartz, pyroxenes, perovskites, stishovite and hollandite, or to spin state transitions of Fe2+ in magnesiowüstite and perovskite and the hcp/bcc transition in iron–nickel (Fe–Ni) alloy, are reviewed from this perspective. To these can be added possible loss behaviour associated with reconstructive transitions which might occur by a ledge mechanism on topotactic interfaces (orthopyroxene/clinopyroxene, olivine/spinel and perovskite/postperovskite), with impurities (Snoek effect) or with mobility of protons. There are experimental difficulties associated with measuring dissipation effects in situ at simultaneous high pressures and temperatures, so reliance is currently placed on investigation of analogue phases such as LaCoO3 for spin-state behaviour and LaAlO3 for the dynamics of ferroelastic twin walls. Similarly, it is not possible to measure loss dynamics simultaneously at the low stresses and low frequencies that pertain in seismic waves, so reliance must be placed on combining different techniques, such as dynamic mechanical analysis (low frequency, relatively high stress) and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (high frequency, low stress), to extrapolate acoustic loss behaviour over wide frequency, temperature and stress intervals. In this context ‘anelasticity maps’ provide a convenient means of representing different loss mechanisms. Contouring of the inverse mechanical quality factor, Q−1, can be achieved if the appropriate constitutive laws are known. The overall approach is illustrated using the examples of spin-state transitions of Co3+ in LaCoO3 and twin mobility in single crystals of the rhombohedral phase of LaAlO3. Anelasticity maps of this type should give seismologists a clearer view of the characteristic patterns of seismic velocity and attenuation that could be used to detect (or rule out) the presence of particular phase transitions or loss behaviour in the core and mantle.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 2011AREP; IA63;
Subjects: 03 - Mineral Sciences
Divisions: 03 - Mineral Sciences
Journal or Publication Title: Geophysical Journal International
Volume: 186
Page Range: pp. 279-295
Identification Number: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05028.x
Depositing User: Sarah Humbert
Date Deposited: 17 Jun 2011 23:55
Last Modified: 23 Jul 2013 10:02
URI: http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/id/eprint/2101

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