Formation of Nanotubes and Hollow Nanoparticles Based on Kirkendall and Diffusion Processes: A Review

Fan, H. J. and Gösele, U. and Zacharias, M. (2007) Formation of Nanotubes and Hollow Nanoparticles Based on Kirkendall and Diffusion Processes: A Review. Small, 3 (10). pp. 1660-1671. DOI 10.1002/smll.200700382

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.200700382

Abstract

The Kirkendall effect is a consequence of the different diffusivities of atoms in a diffusion couple causing a supersaturation of lattice vacancies. This supersaturation may lead to a condensation of extra vacancies in the form of so-called Kirkendall voids close to the interface. On the macroscopic and micrometer scale these Kirkendall voids are generally considered as a nuisance because they deteriorate the properties of the interface. In contrast, in the nanoworld the Kirkendall effect has been positively used as a new fabrication route to designed hollow nano-objects. In this Review we summarize and discuss the demonstrated examples of hollow nanoparticles and nanotubes induced by the Kirkendall effect. Merits of this route are compared with other general methods for nanotube fabrication. Theories of the kinetics and thermodynamics are also reviewed and evaluated in terms of their relevance to experiments. Moreover, nanotube fabrication by solid-state reactions and non-Kirkendall type diffusion processes are covered.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 2007 AREP IA55
Subjects: 03 - Mineral Sciences
Divisions: 03 - Mineral Sciences
Journal or Publication Title: Small
Volume: 3
Page Range: pp. 1660-1671
Identification Number: 10.1002/smll.200700382
Depositing User: Sarah Humbert
Date Deposited: 16 Feb 2009 13:02
Last Modified: 23 Jul 2013 10:07
URI: http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/id/eprint/280

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