Olivine-hosted melt inclusions as an archive of redox heterogeneity in magmatic systems

Hartley, Margaret E. and Shorttle, Oliver and Maclennan, John and Moussallam, Yves and Edmonds, Marie (2017) Olivine-hosted melt inclusions as an archive of redox heterogeneity in magmatic systems. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 479. pp. 192-205. ISSN 0012821X DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.09.029

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Official URL: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.09.029

Abstract

The redox state of volcanic products determines their leverage on the oxidation of Earth's oceans and atmosphere, providing a long-term feedback on oxygen accumulation at the planet's surface. An archive of redox conditions in volcanic plumbing systems from a magma's mantle source, through crustal storage, to eruption, is carried in pockets of melt trapped within crystals. While melt inclusions have long been exploited for their capacity to retain information on a magma's history, their permeability to fast-diffusing elements such as hydrogen is now well documented and their retention of initial oxygen fugacities () could be similarly diffusion-limited. To test this, we have measured Fe3+/ΣFe by micro-XANES spectroscopy in a suite of 65 olivine-hosted melt inclusions and 9 matrix glasses from the AD 1783 Laki eruption, Iceland. This eruption experienced pre-eruptive mixing of chemically diverse magmas, syn-eruptive degassing at the vent, and post-eruptive degassing during lava flow up to 60 km over land, providing an ideal test of whether changes in the of a magma may be communicated through to its cargo of crystal-hosted melt inclusions. Melt inclusions from rapidly quenched tephra samples have Fe3+/ΣFe of (ΔQFM of +0.7 ± 0.1), with no correlation between their and degree of trace element enrichment or differentiation. These inclusions preserve the redox conditions of the mixed pre-eruptive Laki magma. When corrected for fractional crystallisation to 10 wt.% MgO, these inclusions record a parental magma [Fe3+/ΣFe](10) of 0.18 (ΔQFM of +0.4), significantly more oxidised than the Fe3+/ΣFe of 0.10 that is often assumed for Icelandic basalt magmas. Melt inclusions from quenched lava selvages are more reduced than those from the tephra, having Fe3+/ΣFe between 0.133 and 0.177 (ΔQFM from −0.4 to +0.4). These inclusions have approached equilibrium with their carrier lava, which has been reduced by sulfur degassing. The progressive re-equilibration of between inclusions and carrier melts occurs on timescales of hours to days, causing a drop in the sulfur content at sulfide saturation (SCSS) and driving the exsolution of immiscible sulfide globules in the inclusions. Our data demonstrate the roles of magma mixing, progressive re-equilibration, and degassing in redox evolution within magmatic systems, and the open-system nature of melt inclusions to during these processes. Redox heterogeneity present at the time of inclusion trapping may be overprinted by rapid re-equilibration of melt inclusion with the external environment, both in the magma chamber and during slow cooling in lava at the surface. This can decouple the melt inclusion archives of , major and trace element chemistry, and mask associations between , magmatic differentiation and mantle source heterogeneity unless the assembly of diverse magmas is rapidly followed by eruption. Our tools for understanding the redox conditions of magmas are thus limited; however, careful reconstruction of pre- and post-eruptive magmatic history has enabled us to confirm the relatively oxidised nature of ocean island-type mantle compared to that of mid-ocean ridge mantle.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 2017AREP; IA73
Subjects: 05 - Petrology - Igneous, Metamorphic and Volcanic Studies
Divisions: 05 - Petrology - Igneous, Metamorphic and Volcanic Studies
07 - Gold Open Access
Journal or Publication Title: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume: 479
Page Range: pp. 192-205
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.09.029
Depositing User: Sarah Humbert
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2018 17:35
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2018 17:35
URI: http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/id/eprint/4099

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