Aerial strategies advance volcanic gas measurements at inaccessible, strongly degassing volcanoes

Liu, E. J. and Aiuppa, A. and Alan, A. and Arellano, S. and Bitetto, M. and Bobrowski, N. and Carn, S. and Clarke, R. and Corrales, E. and de Moor, J. M. and Diaz, J. A. and Edmonds, M. and Fischer, T. P. and Freer, J. and Fricke, G. M. and Galle, B. and Gerdes, G. and Giudice, G. and Gutmann, A. and Hayer, C. and Itikarai, I. and Jones, J. and Mason, E. and McCormick Kilbride, B. T. and Mulina, K. and Nowicki, S. and Rahilly, K. and Richardson, T. and Rüdiger, J. and Schipper, C. I. and Watson, I. M. and Wood, K. (2020) Aerial strategies advance volcanic gas measurements at inaccessible, strongly degassing volcanoes. Science Advances, 6 (44). eabb9103. ISSN 2375-2548 DOI

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Volcanic emissions are a critical pathway in Earth’s carbon cycle. Here, we show that aerial measurements of volcanic gases using unoccupied aerial systems (UAS) transform our ability to measure and monitor plumes remotely and to constrain global volatile fluxes from volcanoes. Combining multi-scale measurements from ground-based remote sensing, long-range aerial sampling, and satellites, we present comprehensive gas fluxes—3760 ± [600, 310] tons day−1 CO2 and 5150 ± [730, 340] tons day−1 SO2—for a strong yet previously uncharacterized volcanic emitter: Manam, Papua New Guinea. The CO2/ST ratio of 1.07 ± 0.06 suggests a modest slab sediment contribution to the sub-arc mantle. We find that aerial strategies reduce uncertainties associated with ground-based remote sensing of SO2 flux and enable near–real-time measurements of plume chemistry and carbon isotope composition. Our data emphasize the need to account for time averaging of temporal variability in volcanic gas emissions in global flux estimates.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 2020AREP; IA76
Subjects: 05 - Petrology - Igneous, Metamorphic and Volcanic Studies
Divisions: 05 - Petrology - Igneous, Metamorphic and Volcanic Studies
07 - Gold Open Access
12 - PhD
Journal or Publication Title: Science Advances
Volume: 6
Page Range: eabb9103
Identification Number:
Depositing User: Sarah Humbert
Date Deposited: 06 Nov 2020 01:15
Last Modified: 06 Nov 2020 01:15

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