Ultraviolet Camera Measurements of Passive and Explosive (Strombolian) Sulphur Dioxide Emissions at Yasur Volcano, Vanuatu

Ilanko, Tehnuka and Pering, Tom D and Wilkes, Thomas Charles and Woitischek, Julia and D’Aleo, Roberto and Aiuppa, Alessandro and McGonigle, Andrew J S and Edmonds, Marie and Garaebiti, Esline (2020) Ultraviolet Camera Measurements of Passive and Explosive (Strombolian) Sulphur Dioxide Emissions at Yasur Volcano, Vanuatu. Remote Sensing, 12 (17). p. 2703. ISSN 2072-4292 DOI https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12172703

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Abstract

Here, we present the first ultraviolet (UV) camera measurements of sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux from Yasur volcano, Vanuatu, for the period 6–9 July 2018. These data yield the first direct gas-measurement-derived calculations of explosion gas masses at Yasur. Yasur typically exhibits persistent passive gas release interspersed with frequent Strombolian explosions. We used compact forms of the “PiCam” Raspberry Pi UV camera system powered through solar panels to collect images. Our daily median SO2 fluxes ranged from 4 to 5.1 kg s−1, with a measurement uncertainty of −12.2% to +14.7%, including errors from the gas cell calibration drift, uncertainties in plume direction and distance, and errors from the plume velocity. This work highlights the use of particle image velocimetry (PIV) for plume velocity determination, which was preferred over the typically used cross-correlation and optical flow methods because of the ability to function over a variety of plume conditions. We calculated SO2 masses for Strombolian explosions ranging 8–81 kg (mean of 32 kg), which to our knowledge is the first budget of explosive gas masses from this target. Through the use of a simple statistical measure using the moving minimum, we estimated that passive degassing is the dominant mode of gas emission at Yasur, supplying an average of ~69% of the total gas released. Our work further highlights the utility of UV camera measurements in volcanology, and particularly the benefit of the multiple camera approach in error characterisation. This work also adds to our inventory of gas-based data, which can be used to characterise the spectrum of Strombolian activity across the globe. View Full-Text

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 2020AREP; IA76
Subjects: 05 - Petrology - Igneous, Metamorphic and Volcanic Studies
Divisions: 05 - Petrology - Igneous, Metamorphic and Volcanic Studies
07 - Gold Open Access
12 - PhD
Journal or Publication Title: Remote Sensing
Volume: 12
Page Range: p. 2703
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12172703
Depositing User: Sarah Humbert
Date Deposited: 06 Nov 2020 01:46
Last Modified: 06 Nov 2020 01:46
URI: http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/id/eprint/4920

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